Salesforce Terms (Glossary)

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Administrator (System Administrator)
One or more individuals in your organization who can configure and customize the application. Users assigned to the System Administrator profile have administrator privileges.

AJAX Toolkit
A JavaScript wrapper around the API that allows you to execute any API call and access any object you have permission to view from within JavaScript code. For more information, see the AJAX Toolkit Developer’s Guide.

An anti-join is a subquery on another object in a NOT IN clause in a SOQL query. You can use anti-joins to create advanced queries, such as getting all accounts that do not have any open opportunities. See also Semi-Join.

Anonymous Block, Apex
An Apex script that does not get stored in Salesforce, but that can be compiled and executed through the use of the ExecuteAnonymousResult() API call, or the equivalent in the AJAX Toolkit.

Apex Apex code is a strongly-typed, object-oriented programming language that allows developers to execute flow and transaction control statements on the platform server in conjunction with calls to the API. Using syntax that looks like Java and acts like database stored procedures, Apex code enables developers to add business
logic to most system events, including button clicks, related record updates, and Visualforce pages. Apex scripts can be initiated by Web service requests and from triggers on objects.

Apex-Managed Sharing
Enables developers to programmatically manipulate sharing to support their application’s behavior. Apex-managed sharing is only available for custom objects.

Apex Page
See Visualforce Page.


Short for “application.” A collection of components such as tabs, reports, dashboards, and Visualforce pages that address a specific business need. Salesforce provides standard apps such as Sales and Call Center. You can customize the standard apps to match the way you work. In addition, you can package an app and upload it to the AppExchange along with
related components such as custom fields, custom tabs, and custom objects. Then, you can make the app available to other Salesforce users from the AppExchange.


The AppExchange is a sharing interface from that allows you to browse and share apps and services for the platform.

Application Programming Interface (API)
The interface that a computer system, library, or application provides to allow other computer programs to request services from it and exchange data.

Approval Process
An approval process is an automated process your organization can use to approve records in Salesforce. An approval process specifies the steps necessary for a record to be approved and who must approve it at each step. A step can apply to all records included in the process, or just records that have certain attributes. An approval process also specifies the
actions to take when a record is approved, rejected, recalled, or first submitted for approval.

Asynchronous Calls
A call that does not return results immediately because the operation may take a long time. Calls in the Metadata API and Bulk API are asynchronous.


Batch Apex
The ability to perform long, complex operations on many records at a scheduled time using Apex.

Beta, Managed Package
In the context of managed packages, a beta managed package is an early version of a managed package distributed to a sampling of your intended audience to test it.


Callout, Apex
An Apex callout enables you to tightly integrate your Apex with an external service by making a call to an external Web service or sending a HTTP request from an Apex script and then receiving the response.

Child Relationship
A relationship that has been defined on an sObject that references another sObject as the “one” side of a one-to-many relationship. For example, contacts, opportunities, and tasks have child relationships with accounts. See also sObject.

Class, Apex

A template or blueprint from which Apex objects are created. Classes consist of other classes, user-defined methods, variables, exception types, and static initialization code. In most cases, Apex classes are modeled on their counterparts in

Client App
An app that runs outside the Salesforce user interface and uses only the API or Bulk API. It typically runs on a desktop or mobile device. These apps treat the platform as a data source, using the development model of whatever tool and platform for which they are designed. See also Composite App and Native App.

Code Coverage
A way to identify which lines of code are exercised by a set of unit tests, and which are not. This helps you identify sections of code that are completely untested and therefore at greatest risk of containing a bug or introducing a regression in the

Component, Metadata
A component is an instance of a metadata type in the Metadata API. For example, CustomObject is a metadata type for custom objects, and the MyCustomObject__c component is an instance of a custom object. A component is described in an XML file and it can be deployed or retrieved using the Metadata API, or tools built on top of it, such as the
IDE or the Migration Tool.

Something that can be added to a Visualforce page with a set of tags, for example, <apex:detail>.Visualforce includes a number of standard components, or you can create your own custom components.

Component Reference,Visualforce
A description of the standard and custom Visualforce components that are available in your organization. You can access the component library from the development footer of any Visualforce page or the Visualforce Developer’s Guide.

Composite App
An app that combines native platform functionality with one or more external Web services, such as Yahoo! Maps. Composite apps allow for more flexibility and integration with other services, but may require running and managing external code. See also Client App and Native App.

An Apex class that provides a Visualforce page with the data and business logic it needs to run. Visualforce pages can use the standard controllers that come by default with every standard or custom object, or they can use custom controllers.

Controller Extension
A controller extension is an Apex class that extends the functionality of a standard or custom controller.

Client-specific data used by some Web applications to store user and session-specific information. Salesforce issues a session “cookie” only to record encrypted authentication information for the duration of a specific session.

Custom App
See App.

Custom Controller
A custom controller is an Apex class that implements all of the logic for a page without leveraging a standard controller. Use custom controllers when you want your Visualforce page to run entirely in system mode, which does not enforce the profile-based permissions and field-level security of the current user.

Custom Field
A field that can be added in addition to the standard fields to customize Salesforce for your organization’s needs.

Custom Links
Custom URLs defined by administrators to integrate your Salesforce data with external websites and back-office systems. Formerly known as Web links.

Custom Object
Custom records that allow you to store information unique to your organization.

Custom Settings
Custom settings are similar to custom objects and enable application developers to create custom sets of data, as well as create and associate custom data for an organization, profile, or specific user. All custom settings data is exposed in the application cache, which enables efficient access without the cost of repeated queries to the database. This data can then be used by formula fields, validation rules, Apex, and the Web services API. See also Hierarchy Custom Settings and List Custom Settings.


An organized collection of information. The underlying architecture of the platform includes a database where your data is stored.

Database Table
A list of information, presented with rows and columns, about the person, thing, or concept you want to track. See also Object.

Data Loader
A platform tool used to import and export data from your Salesforce organization.

Data Manipulation Language (DML)
An Apex method or operation that inserts, updates, or deletes records from the platform database.

Data State
The structure of data in an object at a particular point in time.

Date Literal
A keyword in a SOQL or SOSL query that represents a relative range of time such as last month or next year.

Decimal Places
Parameter for number, currency, and percent custom fields that indicates the total number of digits you can enter to the right of a decimal point, for example, 4.98 for an entry of 2. Note that the system rounds the decimal numbers you enter, if necessary. For example, if you enter 4.986 in a field with Decimal Places of 2, the number rounds to 4.99.

A relationship where one object’s existence depends on that of another. There are a number of different kinds of dependencies including mandatory fields, dependent objects (parent-child), file inclusion (referenced images, for example), and ordering dependencies (when one object must be deployed before another object).

Dependent Field
Any custom picklist or multi-select picklist field that displays available values based on the value selected in its corresponding controlling field.

To move functionality from an inactive state to active. For example, when developing new features in the Salesforce user interface, you must select the “Deployed” option to make the functionality visible to other users. The process by which an application or other functionality is moved from development to production. To move metadata components from a local file system to a Salesforce organization. For installed apps, deployment makes any custom objects in the app available to users in your organization. Before acustom object is deployed, it is only available to administrators and any users with the “Customize Application” permission.

Deprecated Component
A developer may decide to refine the functionality in a managed package over time as the requirements evolve. This may involve redesigning some of the components in the managed package. Developers cannot delete some components in a Managed – Released package, but they can deprecate a component in a later package version so that new subscribers do
not receive the component, while the component continues to function for existing subscribers and API integrations.

Detail (Record)
A page that displays information about a single object record. The detail page of a record allows you to view the information, whereas the edit page allows you to modify it.

Detail (Reports)
A term used in reports to distinguish between summary information and inclusion of all column data for all information in a report. You can toggle the Show Details/Hide Details button to view and hide report detail information.

Developer Edition
A free, fully-functional Salesforce organization designed for developers to extend, integrate, and develop with the platform. Developer Edition accounts are available on

Developer Force
The Developer Force website at provides a full range of resources for platform developers, including sample code, toolkits, an online developer community, and the ability to obtain limited platform environments.

Development as a Service (DaaS)
An application development model where all development is on the Web. This means that source code, compilation, and development environments are not on local machines, but are Web-based services.

Development Environment
A Salesforce organization where you can make configuration changes that will not affect users on the production organization. There are two kinds of development environments, sandboxes and Developer Edition organizations.


Email Alert
Email alerts are workflow and approval actions that are generated using an email template by a workflow rule or approval process and sent to designated recipients, either Salesforce users or others.

Email Template
A form email that communicates a standard message, such as a welcome letter to new employees or an acknowledgement that a customer service request has been received. Email templates can be personalized with merge fields, and can be written in text, HTML, or custom format.

Enterprise Edition
A Salesforce edition designed for larger, more complex businesses.

Enterprise WSDL
A strongly-typed WSDL for customers who want to build an integration with their Salesforce organization only, or for partners who are using tools like Tibco or webMethods to build integrations that require strong typecasting. The downside of the Enterprise WSDL is that it only works with the schema of a single Salesforce organization because it is bound to
all of the unique objects and fields that exist in that organization’s data model.

Entity Relationship Diagram (ERD)
A data modeling tool that helps you organize your data into entities (or objects, as they are called in the platform) and define the relationships between them. ERD diagrams for key Salesforce objects are published in the Web Services API Developer’s Guide.

Enumeration Field
An enumeration is the WSDL equivalent of a picklist field. The valid values of the field are restricted to a strict set of possible values, all having the same data type.


A child of another Visualforce component that allows you to override an area of the rendered parent with the contents of the facet.

A part of an object that holds a specific piece of information, such as a text or currency value.

Field Dependency
A filter that allows you to change the contents of a picklist based on the value of another field.

Field-Level Security
Settings that determine whether fields are hidden, visible, read only, or editable for users based on their profiles. Available in Enterprise, Unlimited, and Developer Editions only.
The platform for building applications in the cloud. combines a powerful user interface, operating system, and database to allow you to customize and deploy applications in the cloud for your entire enterprise. IDE
An Eclipse plug-in that allows developers to manage, author, debug and deploy applications in the Eclipse development environment. Migration Tool
A toolkit that allows you to write an Apache Ant build script for migrating components between a local file system and a Salesforce organization.

Foreign key
A field whose value is the same as the primary key of another table. You can think of a foreign key as a copy of a primary key from another table. A relationship is made between two tables by matching the values of the foreign key in one table with the values of the primary key in another.


Getter Methods
Methods that enable developers to display database and other computed values in page markup. Methods that return values. See also Setter Methods.

Global Variable
A special merge field that you can use to reference data in your organization. A method access modifier for any method that needs to be referenced outside of the application, either in the Web services API or by other Apex scripts.

Governor limits
Apex execution limits that prevent developers who write inefficient code from monopolizing the resources of other Salesforce users.


Hierarchy Custom Settings
A type of custom setting that uses a built-in hierarchical logic that lets you “personalize” settings for specific profiles or users. The hierarchy logic checks the organization, profile, and user settings for the current user and returns the most specific, or “lowest,” value. In the hierarchy, settings for an organization are overridden by profile settings, which, in turn,
are overridden by user settings.

HTTP Debugger
An application that can be used to identify and inspect SOAP requests that are sent from the AJAX Toolkit. They behave as proxy servers running on your local machine and allow you to inspect and author individual requests.


See Salesforce Record ID.

A forum where customers can suggest new product concepts, promote favorite enhancements, interact with product managers and other customers, and preview what is planning to deliver in future releases. Visit IdeaExchange at

Import Wizard
A tool for importing data into your Salesforce organization, accessible from Setup.

The cluster of software and hardware represented as a single logical server that hosts an organization’s data and runs their applications.The platform runs on multiple instances, but data for any single organization is always consolidated on a single instance.

Integrated Development Environment (IDE)
A software application that provides comprehensive facilities for software developers including a source code editor, testing and debugging tools, and integration with source code control systems.

Integration User
A Salesforce user defined solely for client apps or integrations. Also referred to as the logged-in user in a Web services API context.

ISO Code
The International Organization for Standardization country code, which represents each country by two letters.


Junction Object
A custom object with two master-detail relationships. Using a custom junction object, you can model a “many-to-many” relationship between two objects. For example, you may have a custom object called “Bug” that relates to the standard case object such that a bug could be related to multiple cases and a case could also be related to multiple bugs.


Key Pair
See Salesforce Certificate and Key Pair.

Keywords are terms that you purchase in Google AdWords. Google matches a search phrase to your keywords, causing your advertisement to trigger on Google. You create and manage your keywords in Google AdWords.


Parameter for custom text fields that specifies the maximum number of characters (up to 255) that a user can enter in the field. Parameter for number, currency, and percent fields that specifies the number of digits you can enter to the left of the decimal point, for example, 123.98 for an entry of 3.

List Custom Settings
A type of custom setting that provides a reusable set of static data that can be accessed across your organization. If you use a particular set of data frequently within your application, putting that data in a list custom setting streamlines access to it. Data in list settings does not vary with profile or user, but is available organization-wide. Examples of list data include
two-letter state abbreviations, international dialing prefixes, and catalog numbers for products. Because the data is cached, access is low-cost and efficient: you don’t have to use SOQL queries that count against your governor limits.

List View
A list display of items (for example, accounts or contacts) based on specific criteria. Salesforce provides some predefined views.  In the Console tab, the list view is the top frame that displays a list view of records based on specific criteria. The list views you can select to display in the console are the same list views defined on the tabs of other objects. You cannot create a list view within the console.

Local Name
The value stored for the field in the user’s or account’s language. The local name for a field is associated with the standard name for that field.

The country or geographic region in which the user is located. The setting affects the format of date and number fields, for example, dates in the English (United States) locale display as 06/30/2000 and as 30/06/2000 in the English (United Kingdom) locale. In Professional, Enterprise, Unlimited, and Developer Edition organizations, a user’s individual Locale setting overrides the organization’s Default Locale setting. In Personal and Group Editions, the organization-level locale field is called Locale, not Default Locale.

Long Text Area
Data type of custom field that allows entry of up to 32,000 characters on separate lines.

Lookup Relationship
A relationship between two records so you can associate records with each other. For example, cases have a lookup relationship with assets that lets you associate a particular asset with a case. On one side of the relationship, a lookup field allows users to click a lookup icon and select another record from a popup window. On the associated record, you can then display a related list to show all of the records that have been linked to it. A lookup relationship has no effect on record deletion or security, and the lookup field is not required in the page layout.


Managed Package
A collection of application components that is posted as a unit on the AppExchange and associated with a namespace and possibly a License Management Organization. To support upgrades, a package must be managed. An organization can create a single managed package that can be downloaded and installed by many different organizations. Managed packages
differ from unmanaged packages by having some locked components, allowing the managed package to be upgraded later. Unmanaged packages do not include locked components and cannot be upgraded. In addition, managed packages obfuscate certain components (like Apex) on subscribing organizations to protect the intellectual property of the developer.

Manual Sharing
Record-level access rules that allow record owners to give read and edit permissions to other users who might not have access to the record any other way.

Many-to-Many Relationship
A relationship where each side of the relationship can have many children on the other side. Many-to-many relationships are implemented through the use of junction objects.

Master-Detail Relationship
A relationship between two different types of records that associates the records with each other. For example, accounts have a master-detail relationship with opportunities. This type of relationship affects record deletion, security, and makes the lookup relationship field required on the page layout.

Information about the structure, appearance, and functionality of an organization and any of its parts. uses XML to describe metadata.

Metadata-Driven Development
An app development model that allows apps to be defined as declarative “blueprints,” with no code required.  Apps built on the platform—their data models, objects, forms, workflows, and more—are defined by metadata.

Metadata WSDL
A WSDL for users who want to use the Metadata API calls.

An application model where all users and apps share a single, common infrastructure and code base.

MVC (Model-View-Controller)
A design paradigm that deconstructs applications into components that represent data (the model), ways of displaying that data in a user interface (the view), and ways of manipulating that data with business logic (the controller).


In a packaging context, a one- to 15-character alphanumeric identifier that distinguishes your package and its contents from packages of other developers onAppExchange, similar to a domain name. Salesforce automatically prepends your namespace prefix, followed by two underscores (“__”), to all unique component names in your Salesforce organization.

Native App
An app that is built exclusively with setup (metadata) configuration on Native apps do not require any external services or infrastructure.


An object allows you to store information in your Salesforce organization. The object is the overall definition of the type of information you are storing. For example, the case object allow you to store information regarding customer inquiries. For each object, your organization will have multiple records that store the information about specific instances of that
type of data. For example, you might have a case record to store the information about Joe Smith’s training inquiry and another case record to store the information about Mary Johnson’s configuration issue.

Object-Level Help
Custom help text that you can provide for any custom object. It displays on custom object record home (overview), detail, and edit pages, as well as list views and related lists.

Object-Level Security
Settings that allow an administrator to hide whole tabs and objects from a user so that he or she does not know that type of data exists. On the platform you set object-level access rules with object permissions on user profiles.

One-to-Many Relationship
A relationship in which a single object is related to many other objects. For example, an account may have one or more related contacts.

Organization / Org
A deployment of Salesforce with a defined set of licensed users. An organization is the virtual space provided to an individual customer of Your organization includes all of your data and applications, and is separate from all other organizations.

Organization-Wide Defaults
Settings that allow you to specify the baseline level of data access that a user has in your organization. For example, you can make it so that any user can see any record of a particular object that is enabled in their user profile, but that they need extra permissions to edit one.

Outbound Call
Any call that originates from a user to a number outside of a call center in Salesforce CRM Call Center.

Outbound Message
An outbound message is a workflow, approval, or milestone action that sends the information you specify to an endpoint you designate, such as an external service. An outbound message sends the data in the specified fields in the form of a SOAP message to the endpoint. Outbound messaging is configured in the Salesforce setup menu. Then you must configure
the external endpoint. You can create a listener for the messages using the Web services API.

Owner (Record)
Individual user to which a record (for example, a contact or case) is assigned.


See Platform as a Service.

A group of components and applications that are made available to other organizations through the AppExchange. You use packages to bundle an app along with any related components so that you can upload them to AppExchange together.

Package Dependency
This is created when one component references another component, permission, or preference that is required for the component to be valid. Components can include but are not limited to:
• Standard or custom fields
• Standard or custom objects
• Visualforce pages
• Apex scripts

Permissions and preferences can include but are not limited to:
• Divisions
• Multicurrency
• Record types

Package Version
A package version is a number that identifies the set of components uploaded in a package. The version number has the format majorNumber.minorNumber.patchNumber (for example, 2.1.3). The major and minor numbers increase to a chosen value during every major release. The patchNumber is generated and updated only for a patch release. If there is
no patchNumber, it is assumed to be zero (0).  Unmanaged packages are not upgradeable, so each package version is simply a set of components for distribution. A package version has more significance for managed packages. Packages can exhibit different behavior for different versions. Publishers can use package versions to evolve the components in their managed packages gracefully by releasing subsequent package versions without breaking existing customer integrations using the package. See also Patch and Patch Development Organization.

Package Installation
Installation incorporates the contents of a package into your Salesforce organization. A package on the AppExchange can include an app, a component, or a combination of the two. After you install a package, you may need to deploy components in the package to make it generally available to the users in your organization.

Parameterized Typing
Parameterized typing allows interfaces to be implemented with generic data type parameters that are replaced with actual data types upon construction.

Partner WSDL
A loosely-typed WSDL for customers, partners, and ISVs who want to build an integration or an AppExchange app that can work across multiple Salesforce organizations.With this WSDL, the developer is responsible for marshaling data in the correct object representation, which typically involves editing the XML. However, the developer is also freed from being dependent on any particular data model or Salesforce organization. Contrast this with the Enterprise WSDL, which is strongly typed.

Personal Edition
Product designed for individual sales representatives and single users.

Platform as a Service (PaaS)
An environment where developers use programming tools offered by a service provider to create applications and deploy them in a cloud. The application is hosted as a service and provided to customers via the Internet. The PaaS vendor provides an API for creating and extending specialized applications. The PaaS vendor also takes responsibility for the
daily maintenance, operation, and support of the deployed application and each customer’s data. The service alleviates the need for programmers to install, configure, and maintain the applications on their own hardware, software, and related IT resources. Services can be delivered using the PaaS environment to any market segment.

Platform Edition
A Salesforce edition based on either Enterprise Edition or Unlimited Edition that does not include any of the standard Salesforce CRM apps, such as Sales or Service & Support.

Primary Key
A relational database concept. Each table in a relational database has a field in which the data value uniquely identifies the record. This field is called the primary key. The relationship is made between two tables by matching the values of the foreign key in one table with the values of the primary key in another.

Production Organization
A Salesforce organization that has live users accessing data.

Professional Edition
A Salesforce edition designed for businesses who need full-featured CRM functionality.

The classes, methods and variables that are available to other Apex scripts.


Query Locator
A parameter returned from the query() or queryMore() API call that specifies the index of the last result record that was returned.

Query String Parameter
A name-value pair that’s included in a URL, typically after a ‘?’ character. For example:


A single instance of a Salesforce object. For example, “John Jones” might be the name of a contact record.

Record ID
See Salesforce Record ID.

Record-Level Security
A method of controlling data in which you can allow a particular user to view and edit an object, but then restrict the records that the user is allowed to see.

Record Locking
Record locking is the process of preventing users from editing a record, regardless of field-level security or sharing settings. Salesforce automatically locks records that are pending approval. Users must have the “Modify All” object-level permission for the given object, or the “Modify All Data” permission, to edit locked records. The Initial Submission Actions, Final
Approval Actions, Final Rejection Actions, and Recall Actions related lists contain Record Lock actions by default. You cannot edit this default action for initial submission and recall actions.

Record Name
A standard field on all Salesforce objects.Whenever a record name is displayed in a application, the value is represented as a link to a detail view of the record. A record name can be either free-form text or an autonumber field. Record Name does not have to be a unique value.

Recycle Bin
A page that lets you view and restore deleted information. Access the Recycle Bin by using the link in the sidebar.

A connection between two objects, used to create related lists in page layouts and detail levels in reports. Matching values in a specified field in both objects are used to link related data; for example, if one object stores data about companies and another object stores data about people, a relationship allows you to find out which people work at the company.

Relationship Query
In a SOQL context, a query that traverses the relationships between objects to identify and return results. Parent-to-child and child-to-parent syntax differs in SOQL queries.

Role Hierarchy
A record-level security setting that defines different levels of users such that users at higher levels can view and edit

information owned by or shared with users beneath them in the role hierarchy, regardless of the organization-wide sharing model settings.

Roll-Up Summary Field
A field type that automatically provides aggregate values from child records in a master-detail relationship.

Running User
Each dashboard has a running user, whose security settings determine which data to display in a dashboard. If the running user is a specific user, all dashboard viewers see data based on the security settings of that user—regardless of their own personal security settings. For dynamic dashboards, you can set the running user to be the logged-in user, so that each
user sees the dashboard according to his or her own access level.


See Software as a Service (SaaS).

Note: S-controls have been superseded by Visualforce pages. After March 2010 organizations that have never created s-controls, as well as new organizations, won’t be allowed to create them. Existing s-controls will remain unaffected, and can still be edited. Custom Web content for use in custom links. Custom s-controls can contain any type of content that you can display in a browser, for example a Java applet, an Active-X control, an Excel file, or a custom HTML Web form.

Salesforce Record ID
A unique 15- or 18-character alphanumeric string that identifies a single record in Salesforce.

Salesforce SOA (Service-Oriented Architecture)
A powerful capability of that allows you to make calls to external Web services from within Apex.

Sandbox Organization
A nearly identical copy of a Salesforce production organization.You can create multiple sandboxes in separate environments for a variety of purposes, such as testing and training, without compromising the data and applications in your production environment.

A semi-join is a subquery on another object in an IN clause in a SOQL query. You can use semi-joins to create advanced queries, such as getting all contacts for accounts that have an opportunity with a particular record type. See also Anti-Join.

Session ID
An authentication token that is returned when a user successfully logs in to Salesforce. The Session ID prevents a user from having to log in again every time he or she wants to perform another action in Salesforce. Different from a record ID or Salesforce ID, which are terms for the unique ID of a Salesforce record.

Session Timeout
The period of time after login before a user is automatically logged out. Sessions expire automatically after a predetermined length of inactivity, which can be configured in Salesforce by clicking Your Name ➤ Setup ➤ Security Controls. The default is 120 minutes (two hours). The inactivity timer is reset to zero if a user takes an action in the Web interface or makes an API call.

Setter Methods
Methods that assign values. See also Getter Methods.

An administration area where you can customize and define applications. Access Setup through the Your Name ➤ Setup link at the top of Salesforce pages.

Allowing other users to view or edit information you own. There are different ways to share data:
• Sharing Model—defines the default organization-wide access levels that users have to each other’s information and whether to use the hierarchies when determining access to data.
• Role Hierarchy—defines different levels of users such that users at higher levels can view and edit information owned by or shared with users beneath them in the role hierarchy, regardless of the organization-wide sharing model settings.
• Sharing Rules—allow an administrator to specify that all information created by users within a given group or role is automatically shared to the members of another group or role.
• Manual Sharing—allows individual users to share a specific account or opportunity with other users or groups.
• Apex-Managed Sharing—enables developers to programmatically manipulate sharing to support their application’s behavior. See Apex-Managed Sharing.

Sharing Model
Behavior defined by your administrator that determines default access by users to different types of records.

Sharing Rule
Type of default sharing created by administrators. Allows users in a specified group or role to have access to all information created by users within a given group or role.

Sites sites enables you to create public websites and applications that are directly integrated with your Salesforce organization—without requiring users to log in with a username and password.

SOAP (Simple Object Access Protocol)
A protocol that defines a uniform way of passing XML-encoded data.

Any object that can be stored in the platform.

Software as a Service (SaaS)
A delivery model where a software application is hosted as a service and provided to customers via the Internet. The SaaS vendor takes responsibility for the daily maintenance, operation, and support of the application and each customer’s data. The service alleviates the need for customers to install, configure, and maintain applications with their own hardware,
software, and related IT resources. Services can be delivered using the SaaS model to any market segment.

SOQL (Salesforce Object Query Language)
A query language that allows you to construct simple but powerful query strings and to specify the criteria that should be used to select data from the database.

SOSL (Salesforce Object Search Language)
A query language that allows you to perform text-based searches using the API.

Standard Object
A built-in object included with the platform. You can also build custom objects to store information that is unique to your app.

System Log
A separate window console that can be used for debugging code snippets. Enter the code you want to test at the bottom of the window and click Execute. The body of the System Log displays system resource information, such as how long a line took to execute or how many database calls were made. If the code did not run to completion, the console also displays
debugging information.


In Salesforce, a word or short phrases that users can associate with most records to describe and organize their data in a personalized way. Administrators can enable tags for accounts, activities, assets, campaigns, cases, contacts, contracts, dashboards, documents, events, leads, notes, opportunities, reports, solutions, tasks, and any custom objects (except
relationship group members) Tags can also be accessed through the Web services API. In Salesforce CRM Content, a descriptive label that helps classify and organize content across workspaces. Users can view a list of all files or Web links that belong to a particular tag or filter search results based on a tag or tags.

Test Case Coverage
Test cases are the expected real-world scenarios in which your code will be used.Test cases are not actual unit tests, but are documents that specify what your unit tests should do. High test case coverage means that most or all of the real-world scenarios you have identified are implemented as unit tests. See also Code Coverage and Unit Test.

Test Method
An Apex class method that verifies whether a particular piece of code is working properly.Test methods take no arguments, commit no data to the database, and can be executed by the runTests() system method either through the command line or in an Apex IDE, such as the IDE.

Test Organization
A Salesforce organization used strictly for testing. See also Sandbox Organization.

A piece of Apex that executes before or after records of a particular type are inserted, updated, or deleted from the database. Every trigger runs with a set of context variables that provide access to the records that caused the trigger to fire, and all triggers run in bulk mode—that is, they process several records at once, rather than just one record at a time.

Trigger Context Variable
Default variables that provide access to information about the trigger and the records that caused it to fire.


Unit Test
A unit is the smallest testable part of an application, usually a method. A unit test operates on that piece of code to make sure it works correctly. See also Test Method.

Unlimited Edition
Unlimited Edition is’s flagship solution for maximizing CRM success and extending that success across the entire enterprise through the platform.

Unmanaged Package
A package that cannot be upgraded or controlled by its developer.

URL (Uniform Resource Locator)
The global address of a website, document, or other resource on the Internet. For example,

User Acceptance Testing (UAT)
A process used to confirm that the functionality meets the planned requirements. UAT is one of the final stages before deployment to production.


Validation Rule
A rule that prevents a record from being saved if it does not meet the standards that are specified.

A number value that indicates the release of an item. Items that can have a version include API objects, fields and calls; Apex classes and triggers; and Visualforce pages and components.

The user interface in the Model-View-Controller model, defined by Visualforce.

View State
Where the information necessary to maintain the state of the database between requests is saved.

A simple, tag-based markup language that allows developers to easily define custom pages and components for apps built on the platform. Each tag corresponds to a coarse or fine-grained component, such as a section of a page, a related list, or a field.The components can either be controlled by the same logic that is used in standard Salesforce pages, or developers
can associate their own logic with a controller written in Apex.

Visualforce Controller
See Controller, Visualforce.

Visualforce Lifecycle
The stages of execution of a Visualforce page, including how the page is created and destroyed during the course of a user session.

Visualforce Page
A web page created using Visualforce.Typically, Visualforce pages present information relevant to your organization, but they can also modify or capture data.They can be rendered in several ways, such as a PDF document or an email attachment, and can be associated with a CSS style.


Web Service
A mechanism by which two applications can easily exchange data over the Internet, even if they run on different platforms, are written in different languages, or are geographically remote from each other.

WebService Method
An Apex class method or variable that can be used by external systems, like a mash-up with a third-party application. Web service methods must be defined in a global class.

Web Services API
A SOAP-based Web services application programming interface that provides access to your Salesforce organization’s information. See also Bulk API.

Workflow and Approval Actions
Workflow and approval actions consist of email alerts, tasks, field updates, and outbound messages that can be triggered by a workflow rule or approval process.

Wrapper Class
A class that abstracts common functions such as logging in, managing sessions, and querying and batching records. A wrapper class makes an integration more straightforward to develop and maintain, keeps program logic in one place, and affords easy reuse across components. Examples of wrapper classes in Salesforce include theAJAX Toolkit, which is a
JavaScript wrapper around the SalesforceWeb services API, wrapper classes such as Critical Section in the CTI Adapter for Salesforce CRM Call Center, or wrapper classes created as part of a client integration application that accesses Salesforce using the Web services API.

WSDL (Web Services Description Language) File
An XML file that describes the format of messages you send and receive from a Web service. Your development environment’s SOAP client uses the Salesforce Enterprise WSDL or Partner WSDL to communicate with Salesforce using the Web services API.


XML (Extensible Markup Language)
A markup language that enables the sharing and transportation of structured data. All components that are retrieved or deployed through the Metadata API are represented by XML definitions.


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